The Founders Intent


George Washington throws Cruz a curve from history and Lying Ted Strikes Out


Senator Cruz has repeatedly said that he is a natural born citizen because the 1790 Naturalization Act said, and I quote, “And the children of citizens of the United States that may be born beyond Sea, or out of the limits of the United States, shall be considered as natural born Citizens:” An act to establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization” (March 26, 1790).


One could say the Junior Senator from Texas is correct, if not for the 1795 Naturalization Act that removes the phrase “as natural born Citizens” and replaces it with “as citizens of the United States.”  Now is that really important what is one little phrase? If Article II calls for natural born Citizens, or citizens of the United States before September 17, 1789, then yes the phrase is important.


I have been thinking about the 1790 and 1795 Naturalization Acts and what was the Framer's intent. But I started to do some research on the makeup of the 1st and 3rd Congress and found that 47% of the Senators from the 3rd Congress were also in the 1st Congress, and 23% of the congressmen who were in the 3rd Congress were also in the 1st Congress.  And let us not forget this is with the addition of two states.


That was interesting, but then I crossed referenced the names from the 1st and 3rd Congresses to the 40 signers of the Constitution. Now things started to get interesting. I found that 7 out of the 40 signers of the Constitution also served in both the 1st and 3rd Congresses, with such names like James Madison, who is also known as the Father of the Constitution.


It was Madison who wrote Thomas Jefferson about the reason the Congress was passing the 1795 Naturalization Act was to correct a defect. Interesting right? If you consider the most obvious change was striking the words natural born Citizen and replacing them with citizen of the United States. Yes, consider it interesting.


Well, it gets even more interesting. With all the cross referencing between the signers of the Constitution and the men who passed both the 1790 and 1795 Naturalization Act, some thing was starring me in the face, but it was to simple, too obvious for me to see it clearly. Yes, congress passes laws but another branch signs those laws into law, the President.


And who do you think was President for the 1st and 3rd Congresses? I’ll give you two hints.  This man also signed the Constitution and was the President of the Constitutional Convention, and he was the recipient of John Jay's famous letter that contained these words “"Permit me to hint, whether it would be wise and seasonable to provide a strong check to the admission of Foreigners into the administration of our national Government.”


Yeah, you guessed it, George Washington himself.


It is reasonable surmise that George Washington, who was in fact the epicenter of the natural born Citizen clause did not object, did not veto the 1795 bill, understood exactly what he was signing into law, and we can safely conclude that it was in fact the 1795 version making the children of citizens born overseas citizens of the United States and not natural born citizens is the true intent of the founding fathers and framers of the Constitution.


Is there any thing more you need that to know than George Washington himself would not have accepted Edward Raphael Cruz as a natural born Citizen, constitutionally eligible to be the President of the United States of America?


No? Ok, that’s good. Because today Ted Cruz told a young boy that the little boy should get a spanking, because the little boy told Cruz, that Cruz is stupid. When I was growing up if you got caught telling a lie, the bar of Ivory soap came out, and depending on how big of a lie you told was proportional to the bite of soap you got served.  I am glad Ted Cruz has a big mouth, because he needs a big bite for that big whopper of a lie he has been telling the American people.


But you know the little guy was right, Cruz is stupid to think that we don’t have instant access to the legacy our Founding Fathers left us.



Signers of Constitution

1st Congress

3rd Congress


George Washington ******

George Washington ******

George Washington ******

March 26, 1790: Naturalization Act of 1790, ch. 3, 1 Stat. 103

January 29, 1795: Naturalization Act of 1795, Sess. 2, ch. 20, 1 Stat. 414





Sherman, Roger  **###

1. Oliver Ellsworth (P)

1. Oliver Ellsworth (P)

Johnson, William Samuel **

3. William S. Johnson (P) **

3. Roger Sherman (P), until July 23, 1793 **###

Stephen Mitchell (P), from December 2, 1793




Read, George **

2. Richard Bassett (A) **

1. George Read (P), until September 18, 1793 ###

Bassett, Richard **

1. George Read (P) **

Henry Latimer (P), from February 7, 1795

Broom, Jacob 

2. John Vining (P)

Dickinson, John

Bedford, Gunning, Jr.




Few, William **

2. William Few (A) **

3. James Gunn (A)

Abraham Baldwin ******

3. James Gunn (A)

2. James Jackson (A)


3. John Edwards (A)

2. John Brown (A)




Carroll, Daniel **

3. John Henry (P)

3. John Henry (P)

McHenry, James

1. Charles Carroll (P)

1. Richard Potts (P)

Jenifer, Daniel of St. Thomas




1. Tristram Dalton (P)

2. Caleb Strong (P)

2. Caleb Strong (P)

1. George Cabot (P)

New Hampshire

New Hampshire

New Hampshire

Langdon, John

3. John Langdon (P)

3. John Langdon (A)

Nicholas Gilman ******

2. Paine Wingate (A)

2. Samuel Livermore (P)

New Jersey

New Jersey

New Jersey

Livingston, William

1. Jonathan Elmer (P)

1. John Rutherfurd (P)

Paterson, William **

2. William Paterson (P), until November 13, 1790 **

2. Frederick Frelinghuysen (P)

Brearley, David

Philemon Dickinson (P), from December 6, 1790

New York

New York

3. Rufus King (P), from July 25, 1789

3. Rufus King (P)

1. Philip Schuyler (P), from July 27, 1789

1. Aaron Burr (A)

North Carolina

North Carolina

North Carolina

Spaight, Richard Dobbs

3. Benjamin Hawkins (P), from January 13, 1790

3. Benjamin Hawkins (A)

Blount, William

2. Samuel Johnston (P), from January 29, 1790

2. Alexander Martin (A)

Williamson, Hugh




Franklin, Benjamin

1. William Maclay (A)

3. Robert Morris (P) ******

Morris, Gouverneur

3. Robert Morris (P) ******

1. Vacant until December 2, 1793

Robert Morris ******

Albert Gallatin (A), December 2, 1793 – February 28, 1794

Wilson, James

James Ross (P), from April 24, 1794

Mifflin, Thomas

Clymer, George

Thomas Fitzsimons ******

Ingersoll, Jared

Rhode Island

Rhode Island

Rhode Island

1. Theodore Foster (P), from June 25, 1790

1. Theodore Foster (P)

2. Joseph Stanton, Jr. (A), from June 25, 1790

2. William Bradford (P)

South Carolina

South Carolina

South Carolina

Pinckney, Chas. Cotesworth

2. Pierce Butler (P) ******

2. Pierce Butler (A) ******

Pinckney, Chas

3. Ralph Izard (P)

3. Ralph Izard (P)

Rutledge, John

Pierce Butler ******


1. Moses Robinson (A)

3. Stephen R. Bradley (A)




 James Madison ******

1. William Grayson (A), until March 12, 1790

1. James Monroe (A), until March 29, 1794

Blair, John

John Walker (P), April 26, 1790 - December 6, 1790

Stevens Mason (A), from November 18, 1794

James Monroe (A), from December 6, 1790

2. John Taylor (A), until May 11, 1794

2. Richard Henry Lee (A)

Henry Tazewell (A), from November 18, 1794

Jackson, William, Secretary

House of Representitives



At-large. Benjamin Huntington (P)

At-large. Joshua Coit (P)

At-large. Roger Sherman (P) **###

At-large. James Hillhouse (P)

At-large. Jonathan Sturges (P)

At-large. Amasa Learned (P)

At-large. Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (P)

At-large. Zephaniah Swift (P)

At-large. Jeremiah Wadsworth (P)

At-large. Uriah Tracy (P)

At-large. Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (P)

At-large. Jeremiah Wadsworth (P)



At-large. John Vining (P)

At-large. John Patten (A), until February 14, 1794

Henry Latimer (P), February 14, 1794 – February 7, 1795

Vacant thereafter



1. James Jackson (A)

At-large. Abraham Baldwin (A) ******

2. Abraham Baldwin (A) ******

At-large. Thomas P. Carnes (A)

3. George Mathews (A)


1. Christopher Greenup (A)

2. Alexander D. Orr (A)



1. Michael J. Stone (A)

1. George Dent (P)

2. Joshua Seney (A)

2. John Mercer (A), until April 13, 1794

3. Benjamin Contee (A)

Gabriel Duvall (A), from November 11, 1794

4. William Smith (A)

3. Uriah Forrest (P), until November 8, 1794

5. George Gale (P)

Benjamin Edwards (P), from January 2, 1795

6. Daniel Carroll (P) **

4. Thomas Sprigg (A)

5. Samuel Smith (A)

6. Gabriel Christie (A)

7. William Hindman (P)

8. William Vans Murray (P)



1. Fisher Ames (P)

1a. Fisher Ames (P)

2. Benjamin Goodhue (P)

1b. Samuel Dexter (P)

3. Elbridge Gerry (A)

1c. Benjamin Goodhue (P)

4. Theodore Sedgwick (P)

1d. Samuel Holten (A)

5. George Partridge (P), until August 14, 1790, vacant thereafter

2a. Dwight Foster (P)

6. George Thatcher (P)

2b. William Lyman (A)

7. George Leonard (P)

2c. Theodore Sedgwick (P)

8. Jonathan Grout (A)

2d. Artemas Ward (P)

3a. Shearjashub Bourne (P)

3b. Peleg Coffin, Jr. (P)

4a. Henry Dearborn (A)

4b. George Thatcher (P)

4c. Peleg Wadsworth (P)

At-large. David Cobb (P)

New Hampshire

New Hampshire

At-large. Abiel Foster (P), from June 23, 1789

At-large. Nicholas Gilman (P)

At-large. Nicholas Gilman (P) ******

At-large. John Sherburne (A)

At-large. Samuel Livermore (A)

At-large. Jeremiah Smith (P)

At-large. Paine Wingate (P)

New Jersey

New Jersey

At-large. Elias Boudinot (P)

At-large. John Beatty (P)

At-large. Lambert Cadwalader (P)

At-large. Elias Boudinot (P)

At-large. James Schureman (P)

At-large. Lambert Cadwalader (P)

At-large. Thomas Sinnickson (P)

At-large. Abraham Clark (P), until September 15, 1794

Aaron Kitchell (P), from January 29, 1795

At-large. Jonathan Dayton (P)

New York

New York

1. William Floyd (A)

1. Thomas Tredwell (A)

2. John Laurance (P)

2. John Watts (P)

3. Egbert Benson (P)

3. Philip Van Cortlandt (A)

4. John Hathorn (A), from April 23, 1789

4. Peter Van Gaasbeck (P)

5. Peter Silvester (P), from April 22, 1789

5. Theodorus Bailey (A)

6. Jeremiah Van Rensselaer (A), from May 9, 1789

6. Ezekiel Gilbert (P)

7. John E. Van Alen (P)

8. Henry Glen (P)

9. James Gordon (P)

10. Silas Talbot (P), until June 5, 1794

North Carolina

North Carolina

1. John Baptista Ashe (A), from March 24, 1790

1. Joseph McDowell (A)

2. Hugh Williamson (A), from March 19, 1790 **

2. Matthew Locke (A)

3. Timothy Bloodworth (A), from April 6, 1790

3. Joseph Winston (A)

4. John Steele (P), from April 19, 1790

4. Alexander Mebane (A)

5. John Sevier (P), from June 16, 1790

5. Nathaniel Macon (A)

6. James Gillespie (A)

7. William Barry Grove (P)

8. William Johnston Dawson (A)

9. Thomas Blount (A)

10. Benjamin Williams (A)



At-large. George Clymer (P) **

At-large. James Armstrong (P)

At-large. Thomas Fitzsimons (P) ******

At-large. William Findley (A)

At-large. Thomas Hartley (P)

At-large. Thomas Fitzsimons (P) ******

At-large. Daniel Hiester (A)

At-large. Andrew Gregg (A)

At-large. Frederick Muhlenberg (P)

At-large. Thomas Hartley (P)

At-large. Peter Muhlenberg (A)

At-large. Daniel Hiester (A)

At-large. Thomas Scott (P)

At-large. William Irvine (A)

At-large. Henry Wynkoop (P)

At-large. John Wilkes Kittera (P)

At-large. William Montgomery (A)

At-large. Frederick A. C. Muhlenberg (A)

At-large. John Peter G. Muhlenberg (A)

At-large. Thomas Scott (P)

At-large. John Smilie (A)

Rhode Island

Rhode Island

At-large. Benjamin Bourne (P), from December 17, 1790

At-large. Benjamin Bourne (P)

At-large. Francis Malbone (P)

South Carolina

South Carolina

1. William L. Smith (P), from April 13, 1789

1. William L. Smith (P)

2. Aedanus Burke (A)

2. John Hunter (A)

3. Daniel Huger (P)

3. Lemuel Benton (A)

4. Thomas Sumter (A)

4. Richard Winn (A)

5. Thomas Tudor Tucker (A)

5. Alexander Gillon (A), until October 6, 1794

Robert Goodloe Harper (P), from February 9, 1795

6. Andrew Pickens (A)


1. Israel Smith (A)

2. Nathaniel Niles (A)



1. Alexander White (P)

1. Robert Rutherford (A)

2. John Brown (A)

2. Andrew Moore (A)

3. Andrew Moore (A)

3. Joseph Neville (A)

4. Richard Bland Lee (P)

4. Francis Preston (A)

5. James Madison (A) ******

5. George Hancock (P)

6. Isaac Coles (A)

6. Isaac Coles (A)

7. John Page (A)

7. Abraham B. Venable (A)

8. Josiah Parker (A)

8. Thomas Claiborne (A)

9. Theodorick Bland (A),until June 1, 1790

9. William B. Giles (A)

William B. Giles (A), from December 7, 1790

10. Carter B. Harrison (A)

10. Samuel Griffin (P)

11. Josiah Parker (P)

12. John Page (A)

13. Samuel Griffin (P)

14. Francis Walker (A)

15. James Madison (A) ******

16. Anthony New (A)

17. Richard Bland Lee (P)

18. John Nicholas (A)

19. John Heath (A)

Madison's letter to Jefferson saying the 1790 Act had a defect


Was present for both the 1790 and 1795 Nat Acts

****** Was a signer of the Constitution and was present for both the 1790 and 1795 Nat Acts

** Was both a signer of the Constition and the 1790 Nat Act

Was in House for 1790 and Senate for 1795

**### Roger Sherman was in both the 1st and 3rd Congress but not present for the 1795 vote

Not in Congress for 1790 Vote

### was a signer of the Constitutoion but not present for the 1795 Nat Act vote

Not in Congress for 1795 Vote